Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Peter Lowrie/Daniel Steenstra kitchenware - unsung treasures

In the opshops you sometimes see nicely made hand-thrown kitchenware – lidded jars, bottles, jugs and vases like this, in green or brown.   
Coffee jar 20 cm, sugar 14cm
Bottle with stopper 14 cm, jug 9.5
Vases 9cm
This ware was a mystery to me until Sharon Codlin, daughter of Peter and Eva Beach of Beach Artware, told me that it was made by Eva’s half-brother Peter Lowrie.  

With Sharon’s help I made contact with Peter and he told me the story of his business. Peter Lowrie worked at Beach Artware in the 1970s, when Peter and Eva Beach and their team were mass producing kitchenware – mainly lidded or corked jars in orange or various shades of green, brown and dark blue.  Sadly, in 1977 Peter Beach died of complications related to his severe arthritis.  His shocked and sad widow Eva sold the business, and many of their staff moved on. 

After this, Peter Lowrie set up business on his own, throwing and firing kitchenware, mainly lidded jars. About a year later he recruited Dan Steenstra – and that is why we see so many of these lovely pieces, uniformly symmetrical in shape with skilfully made thin walls and base.  Steenstra was an excellent production thrower.  Peter Lowrie described him as fast, accurate and technically very good.  ‘He had an easy way of making production uniform, so they looked like a nice set rather than higgledy-piggledy.’  After Dan Steenstra arrived, Peter focused on support jobs such as glazing and kiln loading. 

Lowrie’s first workshop was in a basement in Kelston, then he moved to a factory in Glenfield, then back to a garage in Mairangi Bay. The business made a comfortable living through most of the 1980s. At its peak there were three electric kilns - two medium and one large, which were in use 6 -7 days a week, either with biscuit products or glazing. 

In 1987 the market began to taper off and a year later Peter closed his business and went into car sales. He is now retired in Australia. 

So how do we identify Peter Lowrie’s ware?  Occasionally you find a piece marked with a ‘P’ impressed by hand or with a metal typecasting letter, but most is unmarked. These pics are variations on the "P" from Peter Lowrie's workshop. Peter is not confident that all the ware marked "P" was made by his hand. The "P" was possibly a generic workshop mark.  

Although most Lowrie work is unmarked, there are other identifying features. Many Lowrie kitchen jars carry raised lettering – eg the words “TEA”  and 'SUGAR" on the jars below.  

The raised script was made by squirting letters of semi-solid slip (liquid clay) onto the jars before they were glazed and fired.  (In contrast, Beach Artware jars have the lettering scratched or pressed into the clay). Peter Lowrie told me that applying the lettering was ‘like icing a cake’ and was very fast if the slip mixture was the right consistency.  

You often find neatly formed little pots in Lowrie glazes.  These were thrown by Steenstra who was known for his tiny pots.  (Yes that's my finger on the left - these really are very tiny, only 6cm.)  

Steenstra was also a master of texture - look at the elegance of this ewer below.

Pic thanks to Mike67 from NZ Pottery website

Peter Lowrie told me that his workshop used three main glazes: 
- Cream with brown top, semi-shiny
- Brown and gold (but a bit lighter than Beach glaze)
- Green with a dark base

Here is the cream glaze - the hardest to find. 

Tea bags jar H 10 cm.

Below is a coffee pot in Lowrie green.  The glaze often graduates to a darker green, almost black, at the base. And often there is an irridescent glow to it. 
Coffee pot H 23 cm 

The brown ware is less straightforward to identify. This tall brown jar is marked with a "P" so we can be sure it is from the Lowrie workshop. 
Tall jar 23 cm

The difficult issue is that both Beach and Lowrie used a very similar brown glaze with gold highlights. Peter Lowrie tells me that his was slightly lighter than Beach, but I am struggling to differentiate between the two. Peter Lowrie worked at the Beach factory, and it is likely that he continued to use some of Peter Beach’s recipes and techniques after he set up on his own. 

I am confident that raised lettering is a defining feature of Lowrie’s work – Beach scratched or pressed their lettering into to the soft clay. 

Occasionally you come upon a piece of Lowrie ware decorated like these vases and the lidded bowl. Buy it!   The technique is known as Snywerk and any that we see in New Zealand was almost certainly done by Daniel Steenstra, who learned the craft when he was growing up in Holland.   
Photo courtesy Peter Lowrie

Lidded bowl H 7 cm

Vase H 22 cm

Peter did his own selling, mainly to craft shops, hardware outlets, souvenir shops or florists. When he first started he also sold at home parties similar to the Tupperware system.
Peter occasionally employed part-time fettlers, but mainly he and Danny Steenstra produced the considerable output of this ware on their own.  The ware made by Peter Lowrie is not widely recognised, but I am picking that in years to come it will become just as collectable as the work of better known manufacturers. 

Note that there are still gaps in our knowledge of Peter Lowrie's work.  Comments and questions happily received! 

All the best meanwhile. 


Thursday, September 14, 2017

A tribute to Sir Tom Clark

Tom Clark has been on my mind lately - especially because his daughter Jackie has been talking about him on Facebook. 

So here is the story of how I came to interview him.

Below is my favourite photo of Tom, which appears in the introduction of my book Crown Lynn a New Zealand Icon. Wouldn't we all just love to find that vase he is holding!

I first met Sir Tom Clark around July 2004, when he was 88 years old.  I phoned him -  very nervously –  and told him I wanted to write a book about Crown Lynn.  “Are you asking for money?’ he said. Others had offered to write the Crown Lynn story if he paid for their time, but after I assured him I wouldn't do that, he was more than happy to see me.
Armed with a digital recorder and my copy of Gail Henry’s book New Zealand Pottery Commercial and Collectable, I drove to the house he shared with his wife Lady Patricia (Trish) near Kumeu.  The first time I saw him, he was pruning the roses in the winter sun.  Tom was a big, tall man and he was feeling his age, but he still had the energy to work around the house and garden. On his off days he taught himself how to use a computer.
For the next few months I visited Tom once a week or thereabouts.  I took boxes of Crown Lynn and asked him how, when and where the pieces were made. I usually had written questions as well, but it's true that our discussions lacked structure – we both digressed as the inclination arose. Hospitable Lady Trish put out tea-making materials and left us to talk for a couple of hours at a time. 
Unfortunately I never thought to get a photo of him and me at that time.  But here he is on the day he retired from the Comalco Board in 1993.

I recorded about 11 hours of interviews with Tom which I transcribed and used as the basis of my first book.   I learned an enormous amount, and though he was talking about events up to 70 years ago, there were very, very few errors in what he told me.

For the record, Tom Clark was 'Mr Crown Lynn.'  His family co-owned a West Auckland brick and pipe factory, and in the 1930s he got a company grant to set up an experimental workshop which soon grew into a factory in its own right, making domestic ware including vases and dinner sets. By 1963 Crown Lynn was turning out eight million pieces a year.  Sadly, things changed and the factory closed in 1989. 

Tom was a team player as well as a strong and forthright leader. Early on, he told me that Crown Lynn wasn't about Tom Clark, it was about the team. He gave me a list of about 20 other people to interview –  and they too proved a goldmine of information.

When I had a good draft of my first chapter I gave it to Tom to check. I became more and more concerned as the days passed and I didn’t hear from him. “He hates it,” I thought. “It must be way off beam, totally incorrect...” etc etc. 

Sadly, the truth was very different. Tom was in hospital and within a few days he died.  

Before he fell ill Tom had made notes on my draft, so the final version carries the benefit of his advice. Hearteningly for me, one of his sons told me that Tom believed I would do a good job with the book.  I am still sad that he didn’t see it published. I would have greatly valued Tom's input and I think he would have been happy to see his life’s work recognised in print.

Tom Clark was an energetic, intelligent and inspiring man with a good heart. He loved his family and in his later years he told me he regretted that his intense involvement in his work had taken him away from his children so much. 

To this day I am grateful that I had the honour – and the pleasure – of spending so much valuable time with him.  I was very fortunate that Tom agreed to tell me the Crown Lynn story personally.  

This last photo shows him at the helm of his beloved yacht Buccaneer. He was mad keen on sailing and was very instrumental in New Zealand's quest to win the Americas Cup - I hope that one day this story too gets the recognition it deserves.  

For more information see the introduction of my book, Crown Lynn a New Zealand Icon, pages 8 and 9.

Unfortunately both my Crown Lynn books are now out of print and unavailable unless you can find one second hand. 

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Hobby Ceramics - pitfalls for the collector

How often on TradeMe do we see a Crown Lynn shape with an unusual glaze, perhaps with transfers added. It is described as rare, collectable, 'a homer' or experimental - and often 'signed by the artist'.  All too frequently, inflated prices are asked. The selller - and sometimes the buyer - believe that they have a unique piece of Crown Lynn.

Unfortunately they usually don't.  Almost without exception these pieces are indeed Crown Lynn shapes but they have been decorated by an amateur at a Hobby Ceramics class.

So what is Hobby Ceramics?  Particularly in the 1980s and 1990s there was a very popular fad for ceramic decorating classes. The students were sold a selection of glazes and an undecorated bisque (fired) blank. The class was given a few pointers on how to decorate ceramics, and away they went!  The decorated pieces were fired in a kiln then made available for the students to collect.

The blanks came from a variety of sources.  Many moulds were imported direct from the United States.  Some mainstream manufacturers including Orzel, Terra Ceramics and Clay Craft made blanks from their commercial moulds.  Many of these still carry the manufacturer's mark, eg Clay Craft on the base.

To my knowledge Crown Lynn didn't hold Hobby Ceramics classes. The Crown Lynn blanks came mainly from moulds which were sold or 'acquired' when the factory closed in 1989.

The pic above shows a Crown Lynn Ceramica Greenstone vase on the right, and a similar vase in an interesting and unusual colourway on the left. Both have Crown Lynn numbers on the base, and both have the same leafy motif which is typical of Ceramica vases.  The vase on the left is from a Hobby Ceramics class, carefully painted. 

What makes me so sure the vase on the left is Hobby?  For a start the base carries the initials MW scratched into the clay.  Almost without exception Hobby Ceramics pieces have a name or intitials on the base. This is to identify the member of the class who decorated it.  Glazes change colour in the kiln and the class leader didn't want a squabble over who owned a particular piece! 

This pic below shows what a genuine Ceramica Greenstone vase base looks like.
The Hobby vase is also lighter in weight than I would expect from Crown Lynn. Hobby Ceramics pieces are usually made from a cheaper clay body, fired to a lower temperature. They are not designed to be durable. 
The little Crown Lynn dish below appears often as a Hobby Ceramics piece. It carries the Crown Lynn number 2142, but you find it with various unusual glazes and transfers.  The pale speckled glaze is common on hobby pieces - it must have been popular in the 1980s-1990s.  
To compare, here is the same shape decorated by Frank Carpay - that's the difference between a gifted artist and an amateur! 
Below is the base of the speckled dish.  As well as the Crown Lynn number, you see the initials of the decorator on the bottom left.  If you look closely at this picture below, you will see three little dots. These are stilt marks. Hobby ware was usually fired sitting on stilts – little triangular ceramic supports that stopped them sticking to the kiln shelves when they were fired. Professionally made ware most often has an unglazed foot on the base so it can be placed on the kiln shelf without sticking. See the pic of the round Ceramica Greenstone vase base above. 
Hobby ceramics was hugely popular in the 1980s and 1990s, and containerloads of clay, glazes, and moulds were imported for classes, mainly from the US.  There are many, many shapes which are specific to Hobby Ceramics but there is confusion because shapes from mainstream ceramics manufacturers turned up in Hobby classes. My collection includes Hobby shapes from Clay Craft, Crown Lynn, Terra Ceramics and Orzel. Many still carry their maker's mark or shape numbers. It would have been so very helpful for collectors if the Hobby moulds had the makers' marks removed, but alas they often didn't! 

The finished Hobby products varied wildly in quality.  Ceramic decoration is not a skill you learn overnight, and there are some truly hideous pieces around. I should not be unkind to the unknown artist, but I have to say the jug on the left below is breathtakingly awful.
Both these jugs are marked Clay Craft on the base, and both are the same shape.  The one on the right is authentic Clay Craft - the one on the left obviously is not! It has been decorated at a Hobby Ceramics class by N.R, whoever that may be. (Ignore the two green stickers - I use them to keep track of my collection.)

And here is another example, at first glance a lovely vase carrying the rare mark of Cameron Brown Potteries (Cameron Brown Snr owned Titian and Sherwood). But Cameron Brown and his wife Dorothy were skilled artistic ceramicists. There is no way they would have stuck clumsy lumps of clay on a vase like this person has done.  

At one stage the Brown family had a large Hobby Ceramics business and they used some of their moulds to create blanks for students to decorate.  A genuine Cameron Brown vase would be worth hundreds - this oddity is virtually valueless.

And  below is another from the Brown family.  The vase on the left is genuine Orzel, the one on the right is Hobby - carefully painted and quite pretty, but its odd decoration, light weight and the initials 'MW' scratched into the base make me certain it is the Hobby version of this shape. (I wonder if it is the same MW who painted the Crown Lynn Ceramica Greeenstone vase above...) If you look closely you will see there is a faint 'Aquila' moulded into the base.  Aquila is a brand name which was used by the Brown family at Orzel. 

I have accumulated quite a collection of Hobby pieces - 'for research purposes' and also because I am fascinated by the relationship between the genuine article and the Hobby version - I love to see what amateur decorators do.
Below we have two dolphins, identical in every way except for the glaze – and the weight.  The brown version is typical of Terra Ceramics, a commercial manufacturer in the 1980s.  The green version is lighter in weight and that particular green glaze is typical of Hobby.   Terra Ceramics branched out into Hobby Ceramics in the mid-1980s or thereabouts. 

EDITS - a reader Peter Crowe has reminded me that at one stage Terra made some imitation Blue Mountain ware. I am pretty confident my dolphin below is Hobby because it was slightly softer in shape and very light in weight compared with the brown version - BUT if you find heavier Terra shapes with an imitation Blue Mountain glaze, then it probably is authentic Terra. 

Above, I have featured my Hobby Ceramics ware which is derived from mainstream shapes, because that is where the confusion lies. However there are a lot of Hobby shapes which were supplied direct as well. These adorable little creatures are a good example.

They are both slightly clumsily hand painted and the duck has initials scratched into the base and the dog has the name Olivia painted along one side.

If you frequent opshops you will see more and more of these Hobby pieces - people who were given them in the Hobby Ceramics boom in the 1980s and 1990s are now begining to downsize.  Quite often Hobby pieces were made as gifts. You often see "Love to Nana' (or whatever) and a date painted on the base.  I couldn't resist the quirky message on this little plate, painted by Bonnie's friend Sarah. 

Some Hobby shapes are marked Arnel's.  This is the name of the mould maker and distributor. I believe they are American. There is whole series of Chinese figurines like this one below - again they are often in that slimy-looking green Hobby glaze! If you google 'Arnels pottery images' you will see some of the wide range of shapes they made. 
Here is the base. Again, please ignore my green sticker which is my collection reference number.
One last comment - not all Hobby Ceramics is amateurish. A friend of mine remembers competitions for the best pieces; some entries were of a very high standard.  I like this mug, for example.
And these toucans, though obviously not professional, show artistic merit - far beyond anything I could aspire to!
Ok, I think that is enough for this post. There is plenty more to add - next time I will discuss why not all Hobby pieces are light weight - and why there are a very few Crown Lynn pieces which are professionally decorated though not in Crown Lynn designs! 

Meanwhile, if this brief introduction alerts a few collectors to the pitfalls of buying 'rare' or 'unique' items, then my work is not in vain. Once again I repeat, in the style of Carpay’ does not mean by Carpay.  If there are no other bidders and others are rasing doubt through their questions, then think twice before you bid.   Sometimes sellers leave the questions unanswered – this is another clue that the item may not be as special as the listing suggests. 

EDITS - wonderful Ev Williams has added a whole lot more info to the New Zealand Pottery site.  Click here to see what she has to say! 

You will also find more examples of Hobby Ceramics on the NZ Pottery site here.  (I searched for Hobby on the site.) 

Sunday, May 21, 2017

Titian, Orzel and Crown Lynn - are they related?

There is a lot of debate about what is Titian and what is Crown Lynn. I hope this post helps clarify things.   

One proviso: This is a complex subject with lots of sub-plots. I hope I have got the story correct - but comments are happily accepted!

The Brown family - Sherwood and Titian

Cameron Brown Snr and Dorothy Brown set up Sherwood Pottery in the Waitakeres in Auckland in about 1951. They made detailed mugs, ashtrays, toby jugs and figurines, which are sought after today. Some of this ware is marked ‘Sherwood’ in various ways. They also made unglazed blanks for Owen Salisbury, who decorated them in his Royal Oak factory near Penrose.  Sherwood has no relationship with Crown Lynn.

This mug and goose are typical of the ware made by Cameron and Beverley Brown in the early days.

In 1958 the Browns moved their operation to Henderson and renamed it Titian Studio. By 1960 they had about 16 staff, and this is the period when the ware we generally recognise as Titian was made. Quite a lot is numbered, and often a letter is incorporated in the number on the base – V for vase, B for bowl, etc.

This link takes you through to the extensive Titian photo gallery on the New Zealand Pottery website.  

In the main, Cam and Dorothy made artware rather than cups and plates. Their exquisite pieces included a flying gull, leaping fish, a swordfish, wall birds, wall vases shaped like butterfies and flowers and fish… all carefully shaped and decorated.  This butterfly wall vase from my friend Jim's collection shows the delicate glazing techniques used by the Browns at Titian.

There was also a huge range of lamp bases and vases, with innovative and interesting glazes. Some pieces carry stickers such as “Presley Ware” depending on which distributor it was made for. 
 Above is an interesting Presley Ware vase/bowl... I am not sure what to call it!

Titian from this period also has no relationship with Crown Lynn.

In 1964/65, Titian was chugging along nicely, but Cam and Dorothy decided they wanted to expand.  They  formed a limited liability company, Titian Potteries (1965) Ltd, and sold shares.  The new Titian factory was established in Takanini in mid-1966.  By now Titian was making branded ware for a range of distributors, including Syliva Ware, Paramount Ware, Montrose Ware and Cambridge Ware – this is where the ‘Cambridge’ marked jugs come into the picture.

Crown Lynn takes over the Titian factory - 1968

Crown Lynn became concerned at Titian’s expansion, and began buying up shares.  By May 1968, Crown Lynn had a majority shareholding and the company newsletter annouced a "partnership" with the Brown family - in reality a takeover.

This is when the confusion arises.  In the ex-Titian factory, Crown Lynn began making huge amounts of domestic ware including the honey glaze ware and the white vases.  These products are marked with a four-digit shape number, like this mug.


This ware is not Titian, it is Crown Lynn which has been made in what was previously the Titian factory.  Note the four-digit shape number on the base of the mug above. This is  typical of post-1964 Crown Lynn.  

To add to the confusion, the factory was generally known as 'the Titian factory" long after it fell into Crown Lynn's ownership. And, the factory continued to make some Titian shapes after the Crown Lynn takeover. Thus, you will see the same jug shape with and without the Crown Lynn four-digit shape number. The "Cambridge" jugs are a good example - this one was made after the takeover; on the base there is a faint 6027 along with the word Cambridge. 
And to confuse matters still further, for an unknown reason some of the Crown Lynn ware made in the old Titian factory carries the words "Titian Pottery" or "Titianware" along with the four-digit number.
For example, the shape number on this egg holder marks it as Crown Lynn - the "Titianware" is just there to mislead us all!

Likewise this little jug is marked "Titian Pottery" while its four-digit number identifies it as Crown Lynn shape number 6053.

Again, the jug and egg holder are not Titian, they are Crown Lynn which was made in the ex-Titian factory. No wonder we get confused! 

The Crown Lynn-owned 'Titian factory'  continued to make much of Crown Lynn's honeyglaze pottery (like the pinecone patterned mug above) and whiteware - including the swans - for many years.  If you have a swan with the "170" mark it was made in the Crown Lynn factory. If it has a four-digit number, it was most likely made in the Titian factory after the Crown Lynn  takeover. Both swans are Crown Lynn. 

The old Titian factory was sold by Ceramco in the mid-1980s and closed soon after.  Crown Lynn itself shut up shop in 1989.


The brands Orzel, Aquila and Adelaar have nothing whatever to do with Crown Lynn!  Sometime soon I will write more detail about these three brands, which are considered to be under the umbrella of Orzel. Meanwhile here's a quick summary.

For some time after Crown Lynn took over Titian Potteries in 1968, the Brown family continued to work in the factory  under Crown Lynn, but Cameron and Dorothy missed their independence. They set up a workshop in their garage at home in Papakura and they and their son Cameron began doing contract production work in their spare time. This became profitable enough for them to leave Crown Lynn and by 1972 they had bought a property at Firth St in Drury and set up a new factory.

By this time their sons Cameron and Chris had joined the family enterprise.  The new ware was named Orzel after the Polish Eagle.  (Cam Snr was in the Polish merchant navy during the second world war – an interesting story but it will have to wait for another time!). The brands Aquila and Adelaar (also meaning eagle) were also made at the Orzel factory during this period.  

At the Drury factory the Brown family mass produced the ware which we commonly recognise as Orzel.  The enterprise grew and grew, at its height in the mid-1980s there were about 40 staff. Orzel was a big and busy factory.  They made terracotta kitchen ware which was sold at The Warehouse, jugs, sugar bowls, etc etc etc.  Unfortuately much of the Orzel ware is not marked - but after a while you learn to recognise the shapes and glazes.

This delightful fat little jug is a common Orzel shape.

And there are hundreds if not thousands of Orzel salt pigs out there in the opshops.

Beer steins were a huge seller. Orzel made them for the breweries; almost without exception they are branded with a beer logo.  These are for various armed services messes.

The business had its ups and downs, but for a couple of decades Orzel was a relatively big player in the New Zealand commercial pottery field.  

In the 1990s the market slowed, and after Dorothy then Cameron Snr died the business ebbed to a close.  Today, Cameron Jnr and his wife Beverley – sometimes assisted by their son, also named Cameron – make kiwiana ware to sell at markets around the country. They use the brand name Sherwood.

 This post does not seek to be a definitive history of Titian and Orzel. I would need to write a book to do that.  But I hope it helps clarify the distinction between Titian and Crown Lynn made in the ex-Titian factory. Those four-digit shape numbers are the key. 

Much of this information has come from Gail Henry’s book “New Zealand Pottery, Commercial and Collectable” and from my interviews with Cameron Brown Jnr and his wife Dorothy.
Ev Williams has also made a major contribution, both personally and through her NewZealand Pottery website.