Sunday, February 4, 2018

A serious mistake!

I have to confess to a mistake in my Crown Lynn Collectors Handbook. On page 136 there is a photo of a Pania of the Reef lamp base which is not Crown Lynn.


EDITS -  one of my readers - Karen  has shed some light on the likely origins of the Pania I discuss below.  In the catalogue of the Jim Durmmond auction of 22 April 2009, the very last listings are as follows.  (The numbers on the left are the lot numbers for the auction.) 

1891 ‘Marble Art’ resin Pania of the reef lamp base $250 - $300
1892 ‘Marble Art’ cast black resin warrior lamp base $200 - $250
1893 ‘Marble Art’ cast ochre coloured ancestral figure lamp base $300 - $500
1894 ‘Marble Art’ cast black coloured poutokomanawa lamp base $300 - $500

Karen also provided us with a link to more information about the likely manufacturers, a company called Marble Art.

And this is the link to the Jim Drummond catalogue, which Art + Object auction house has generously retained on line for us.,43,25,Jim_Drummond_Collection.pdf ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Now  back to my original post - Pania on pg 136 of my Crown Lynn Collectors Handbook is not Crown Lynn! 

 It looks like it could be Crown Lynn, it feels like Crown Lynn, but there is absolutely nothing in the records that establishes that it is Crown Lynn.  Significantly, my researcher friend Ev Williams who has spent hours and hours sifting through the records which are now available at Te Toi Uku Crown Lynn museum, has found no reference to it.

The lovely little figurine with a New Zealand theme is almost certainly
made by someone in NZ, but I have no idea who. 

Recently I was sent a pic which shows one of these lamp bases with a little sticker "NZ REG. DESIGN 11549" stuck onto the green velvet base. Maybe a NZ design researcher will be able to track down a maker with that information. 

It may not even be ceramic, though as yet we have been unable to find out what it actually is made of.  The owner of the one I photographed lives some distance away and I have yet to check it personally.

So why on earth did I put it in the book?  Believe me, I often ask myself that question.

Unfortunately I was shown it by someone who believed it was Crown Lynn, and I was so thrilled that I made a foolish assumption. The Three Faces of Eve lamp would have been a much more sensible example.

I must apologise to the Crown Lynn collectors who are seeking this piece for themselves - if you find one, by all means treasure it as a special piece of Kiwiana, but it is not Crown Lynn. And there are enough errors on Trademe without me adding to them! 

That lamp is hopefully my most substantial error, but there are others. 

Importantly, Crown Lynn designer Mark Cleverley told me of an error in my first book Crown Lynn a New Zealand Icon.  On page 108,  the Expo 70 Legend of Maui platter and the chopsticks fish hook were designed by Mark Cleverley not (as I was initially told) by David Jenkin. 

Like all researcher/writers, I do my best to thoroughly check and cross-check, but even so the occasional mistake slips through. 

It's ok if the error is online, I just do a quick edit - hopefully before it is re-posted, but an incorrect statement in a book is much more serious because it is there forever.  

Now - a few words on how I research. My work is based on interviews with the actual people who made the ware. For example I recorded over 11 hours of conversations with Sir Tom Clark, the founder of Crown Lynn, and many more interviews with people who were involved with Crown Lynn in various ways.  I transcribed those interviews and used them as the basis of my first book.

As we all know, memory is fallible and often I was told different dates by different people - and sometimes I heard widely differing versions of the same story. 

Where possible I found newspaper clippings, catalogues or other documents to clarify and support my writing. Through the 1960s and 1970s Crown Lynn published a series of newsletters which I was allowed to copy. I also seached out advertisements, which are an accurate record as they were prepared and placed by Crown Lynn. 

However problems arise when you get two different newspaper articles which give differing stories and differing dates. Journalists often base their work on what they are told, and there are pitfalls in that approach.  

My books were both edited at Penguin publishers, and my skillful and very thorough editors picked up inconsistencies in spelling and dates, for which I am forever grateful. 

Sometimes even the internal Crown Lynn publications were in error. Ernest Shufflebotham, creator of the lovely 'Hand Potted' whiteware, was always called Ernie Shufflebottom, in every Crown Lynn newsletter and by all his workmates. It was only after he died that his family in England got in touch with New Zealand researchers and asked us to make a correction. This was too late for my first book, but not for my second.  

After my books were published a whole lot more documentation was made available through the Richard Quinn collection which is now archived at Te Toi Uku, the Crown Lynn museum in New Lynn, Auckland.  Those documents include many catalogues and workbooks from the Crown Lynn factory itself.  They were gathered up by Richard Quinn and others when the factory was closing and was about to be demolished. 

They give more accurate dates than I was able to discover, plus a whole lot of new information.  Much of this new info has been added to the wonderful New Zealand Pottery website by Ev Williams and her fellow researchers. 

I also owe a debt of gratitude to previous researchers, in particular Gail Lambert/Henry and Olive Hale. 

More soon. 


Friday, December 1, 2017

Anthony Morris exhibition - wonderful history

Here I am straying into studio pottery, but I have to write about my visit to the Anthony Morris exhibition at Morris and James in Matakana. I loved it!  The exhibition is entirely focused on the art/craft of Anthony Morris, rather than on the wider Morris and James products.  Morris and James is famous for its pots and platters in amazing bright bold colours and patterns, but this exhibition shows a different side to its co-founder. 

The exhibtion closes on 10 December 2017. I hope you get a chance to see it. 

First I have to point out that I am not a qualified critic of studio pottery. My opinion is definitely based on the old saying - "I don't know much about pottery but I know what I like". 

Let's start with his 'shades' - there is a whole wall of plaques decorated with human faces, created at a time when Morris was at a personal low point.  This one caught my eye.  They are not for sale. 
Anthony Morris learned to pot in the UK, here are some of his early salt glaze jugs from the exhibition.
 Close up  on this mug you can see his mark. 
A trip to France inspired large rustic platters, with the irregular decoration which is one of his hallmarks. 
 These big fat pots are decorated with sgraffito on white slip. He told me that his aim at the time was to develop a slip that slowly flaked off the terracotta, giving his pots a gentle aged look.  Much of his older work was hauled in from the garden for the exhibition - some still has a patina of moss and algae. These pots are big - from memory over a metre tall. In the background to the left you can see the wall of  plaques he calls shades. 
There is a series of fat wonky African-style pots that really took my fancy.  From memory 40-50 cm tall. I would happily have any one of them in my house - but again, these are history and not for sale. 
Most impressive were these huge pots below, made of coiled clay and in the most amazing rich colours.  They were made on a turntable with a helper slowly revolving the base to keep up with Ant as he built his pot higer and higher.  The largest are at least as tall as I am.  I could not manage a photo that does them justice - I hope you get the chance to have a look for yourself.
Anthony Morris had a severe stroke in 2004 at the age of 68. Since then he has returned to pottery with only his good side functioning - the stroke deprived him of the use of his dominant left hand.  His work is now smaller and more 'wonky' than it was pre-stroke but he is creating some interestingly glazed and decorated slabwork plaques and dishes. 


Also exhibited are glass pieces which Morris created before his stroke. 
And here is Anthony himself, still thinking of his next (secret) project which will be unveiled in the fullness of time. 
That's all for now.  Next time I will be back to commercial pottery! 

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Peter Lowrie/Daniel Steenstra kitchenware - unsung treasures

In the opshops you sometimes see nicely made hand-thrown kitchenware – lidded jars, bottles, jugs and vases like this, in green or brown.   
Coffee jar 20 cm, sugar 14cm
Bottle with stopper 14 cm, jug 9.5
Vases 9cm
This ware was a mystery to me until Sharon Codlin, daughter of Peter and Eva Beach of Beach Artware, told me that it was made by Eva’s half-brother Peter Lowrie.  

With Sharon’s help I made contact with Peter and he told me the story of his business. Peter Lowrie worked at Beach Artware in the 1970s, when Peter and Eva Beach and their team were mass producing kitchenware – mainly lidded or corked jars in orange or various shades of green, brown and dark blue.  Sadly, in 1977 Peter Beach died of complications related to his severe arthritis.  His shocked and sad widow Eva sold the business, and many of their staff moved on. 

After this, Peter Lowrie set up business on his own, throwing and firing kitchenware, mainly lidded jars. About a year later he recruited Dan Steenstra – and that is why we see so many of these lovely pieces, uniformly symmetrical in shape with skilfully made thin walls and base.  Steenstra was an excellent production thrower.  Peter Lowrie described him as fast, accurate and technically very good.  ‘He had an easy way of making production uniform, so they looked like a nice set rather than higgledy-piggledy.’  After Dan Steenstra arrived, Peter focused on support jobs such as glazing and kiln loading. 

Lowrie’s first workshop was in a basement in Kelston, then he moved to a factory in Glenfield, then back to a garage in Mairangi Bay. The business made a comfortable living through most of the 1980s. At its peak there were three electric kilns - two medium and one large, which were in use 6 -7 days a week, either with biscuit products or glazing. 

In 1987 the market began to taper off and a year later Peter closed his business and went into car sales. He is now retired in Australia. 

So how do we identify Peter Lowrie’s ware?  Occasionally you find a piece marked with a ‘P’ impressed by hand or with a metal typecasting letter, but most is unmarked. These pics are variations on the "P" from Peter Lowrie's workshop. Peter is not confident that all the ware marked "P" was made by his hand. The "P" was possibly a generic workshop mark.  

Although most Lowrie work is unmarked, there are other identifying features. Many Lowrie kitchen jars carry raised lettering – eg the words “TEA”  and 'SUGAR" on the jars below.  

The raised script was made by squirting letters of semi-solid slip (liquid clay) onto the jars before they were glazed and fired.  (In contrast, Beach Artware jars have the lettering scratched or pressed into the clay). Peter Lowrie told me that applying the lettering was ‘like icing a cake’ and was very fast if the slip mixture was the right consistency.  

You often find neatly formed little pots in Lowrie glazes.  These were thrown by Steenstra who was known for his tiny pots.  (Yes that's my finger on the left - these really are very tiny, only 6cm.)  

Steenstra was also a master of texture - look at the elegance of this ewer below.

Pic thanks to Mike67 from NZ Pottery website

Peter Lowrie told me that his workshop used three main glazes: 
- Cream with brown top, semi-shiny
- Brown and gold (but a bit lighter than Beach glaze)
- Green with a dark base

Here is the cream glaze - the hardest to find. 

Tea bags jar H 10 cm.

Below is a coffee pot in Lowrie green.  The glaze often graduates to a darker green, almost black, at the base. And often there is an irridescent glow to it. 
Coffee pot H 23 cm 

The brown ware is less straightforward to identify. This tall brown jar is marked with a "P" so we can be sure it is from the Lowrie workshop. 
Tall jar 23 cm

The difficult issue is that both Beach and Lowrie used a very similar brown glaze with gold highlights. Peter Lowrie tells me that his was slightly lighter than Beach, but I am struggling to differentiate between the two. Peter Lowrie worked at the Beach factory, and it is likely that he continued to use some of Peter Beach’s recipes and techniques after he set up on his own. 

I am confident that raised lettering is a defining feature of Lowrie’s work – Beach scratched or pressed their lettering into to the soft clay. 

Occasionally you come upon a piece of Lowrie ware decorated like these vases and the lidded bowl. Buy it!   The technique is known as Snywerk and any that we see in New Zealand was almost certainly done by Daniel Steenstra, who learned the craft when he was growing up in Holland.   
Photo courtesy Peter Lowrie

Lidded bowl H 7 cm

Vase H 22 cm

Peter did his own selling, mainly to craft shops, hardware outlets, souvenir shops or florists. When he first started he also sold at home parties similar to the Tupperware system.
Peter occasionally employed part-time fettlers, but mainly he and Danny Steenstra produced the considerable output of this ware on their own.  The ware made by Peter Lowrie is not widely recognised, but I am picking that in years to come it will become just as collectable as the work of better known manufacturers. 

Note that there are still gaps in our knowledge of Peter Lowrie's work.  Comments and questions happily received! 

All the best meanwhile. 


Thursday, September 14, 2017

A tribute to Sir Tom Clark

Tom Clark has been on my mind lately - especially because his daughter Jackie has been talking about him on Facebook. 

So here is the story of how I came to interview him.

Below is my favourite photo of Tom, which appears in the introduction of my book Crown Lynn a New Zealand Icon. Wouldn't we all just love to find that vase he is holding!

I first met Sir Tom Clark around July 2004, when he was 88 years old.  I phoned him -  very nervously –  and told him I wanted to write a book about Crown Lynn.  “Are you asking for money?’ he said. Others had offered to write the Crown Lynn story if he paid for their time, but after I assured him I wouldn't do that, he was more than happy to see me.
Armed with a digital recorder and my copy of Gail Henry’s book New Zealand Pottery Commercial and Collectable, I drove to the house he shared with his wife Lady Patricia (Trish) near Kumeu.  The first time I saw him, he was pruning the roses in the winter sun.  Tom was a big, tall man and he was feeling his age, but he still had the energy to work around the house and garden. On his off days he taught himself how to use a computer.
For the next few months I visited Tom once a week or thereabouts.  I took boxes of Crown Lynn and asked him how, when and where the pieces were made. I usually had written questions as well, but it's true that our discussions lacked structure – we both digressed as the inclination arose. Hospitable Lady Trish put out tea-making materials and left us to talk for a couple of hours at a time. 
Unfortunately I never thought to get a photo of him and me at that time.  But here he is on the day he retired from the Comalco Board in 1993.

I recorded about 11 hours of interviews with Tom which I transcribed and used as the basis of my first book.   I learned an enormous amount, and though he was talking about events up to 70 years ago, there were very, very few errors in what he told me.

For the record, Tom Clark was 'Mr Crown Lynn.'  His family co-owned a West Auckland brick and pipe factory, and in the 1930s he got a company grant to set up an experimental workshop which soon grew into a factory in its own right, making domestic ware including vases and dinner sets. By 1963 Crown Lynn was turning out eight million pieces a year.  Sadly, things changed and the factory closed in 1989. 

Tom was a team player as well as a strong and forthright leader. Early on, he told me that Crown Lynn wasn't about Tom Clark, it was about the team. He gave me a list of about 20 other people to interview –  and they too proved a goldmine of information.

When I had a good draft of my first chapter I gave it to Tom to check. I became more and more concerned as the days passed and I didn’t hear from him. “He hates it,” I thought. “It must be way off beam, totally incorrect...” etc etc. 

Sadly, the truth was very different. Tom was in hospital and within a few days he died.  

Before he fell ill Tom had made notes on my draft, so the final version carries the benefit of his advice. Hearteningly for me, one of his sons told me that Tom believed I would do a good job with the book.  I am still sad that he didn’t see it published. I would have greatly valued Tom's input and I think he would have been happy to see his life’s work recognised in print.

Tom Clark was an energetic, intelligent and inspiring man with a good heart. He loved his family and in his later years he told me he regretted that his intense involvement in his work had taken him away from his children so much. 

To this day I am grateful that I had the honour – and the pleasure – of spending so much valuable time with him.  I was very fortunate that Tom agreed to tell me the Crown Lynn story personally.  

This last photo shows him at the helm of his beloved yacht Buccaneer. He was mad keen on sailing and was very instrumental in New Zealand's quest to win the Americas Cup - I hope that one day this story too gets the recognition it deserves.  

For more information see the introduction of my book, Crown Lynn a New Zealand Icon, pages 8 and 9.

Unfortunately both my Crown Lynn books are now out of print and unavailable unless you can find one second hand. 

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Hobby Ceramics - pitfalls for the collector

How often on TradeMe do we see a Crown Lynn shape with an unusual glaze, perhaps with transfers added. It is described as rare, collectable, 'a homer' or experimental - and often 'signed by the artist'.  All too frequently, inflated prices are asked. The selller - and sometimes the buyer - believe that they have a unique piece of Crown Lynn.

Unfortunately they usually don't.  Almost without exception these pieces are indeed Crown Lynn shapes but they have been decorated by an amateur at a Hobby Ceramics class.

So what is Hobby Ceramics?  Particularly in the 1980s and 1990s there was a very popular fad for ceramic decorating classes. The students were sold a selection of glazes and an undecorated bisque (fired) blank. The class was given a few pointers on how to decorate ceramics, and away they went!  The decorated pieces were fired in a kiln then made available for the students to collect.

The blanks came from a variety of sources.  Many moulds were imported direct from the United States.  Some mainstream manufacturers including Orzel, Terra Ceramics and Clay Craft made blanks from their commercial moulds.  Many of these still carry the manufacturer's mark, eg Clay Craft on the base.

To my knowledge Crown Lynn didn't hold Hobby Ceramics classes. The Crown Lynn blanks came mainly from moulds which were sold or 'acquired' when the factory closed in 1989.

The pic above shows a Crown Lynn Ceramica Greenstone vase on the right, and a similar vase in an interesting and unusual colourway on the left. Both have Crown Lynn numbers on the base, and both have the same leafy motif which is typical of Ceramica vases.  The vase on the left is from a Hobby Ceramics class, carefully painted. 

What makes me so sure the vase on the left is Hobby?  For a start the base carries the initials MW scratched into the clay.  Almost without exception Hobby Ceramics pieces have a name or intitials on the base. This is to identify the member of the class who decorated it.  Glazes change colour in the kiln and the class leader didn't want a squabble over who owned a particular piece! 

This pic below shows what a genuine Ceramica Greenstone vase base looks like.
The Hobby vase is also lighter in weight than I would expect from Crown Lynn. Hobby Ceramics pieces are usually made from a cheaper clay body, fired to a lower temperature. They are not designed to be durable. 
The little Crown Lynn dish below appears often as a Hobby Ceramics piece. It carries the Crown Lynn number 2142, but you find it with various unusual glazes and transfers.  The pale speckled glaze is common on hobby pieces - it must have been popular in the 1980s-1990s.  
To compare, here is the same shape decorated by Frank Carpay - that's the difference between a gifted artist and an amateur! 
Below is the base of the speckled dish.  As well as the Crown Lynn number, you see the initials of the decorator on the bottom left.  If you look closely at this picture below, you will see three little dots. These are stilt marks. Hobby ware was usually fired sitting on stilts – little triangular ceramic supports that stopped them sticking to the kiln shelves when they were fired. Professionally made ware most often has an unglazed foot on the base so it can be placed on the kiln shelf without sticking. See the pic of the round Ceramica Greenstone vase base above. 
Hobby ceramics was hugely popular in the 1980s and 1990s, and containerloads of clay, glazes, and moulds were imported for classes, mainly from the US.  There are many, many shapes which are specific to Hobby Ceramics but there is confusion because shapes from mainstream ceramics manufacturers turned up in Hobby classes. My collection includes Hobby shapes from Clay Craft, Crown Lynn, Terra Ceramics and Orzel. Many still carry their maker's mark or shape numbers. It would have been so very helpful for collectors if the Hobby moulds had the makers' marks removed, but alas they often didn't! 

The finished Hobby products varied wildly in quality.  Ceramic decoration is not a skill you learn overnight, and there are some truly hideous pieces around. I should not be unkind to the unknown artist, but I have to say the jug on the left below is breathtakingly awful.
Both these jugs are marked Clay Craft on the base, and both are the same shape.  The one on the right is authentic Clay Craft - the one on the left obviously is not! It has been decorated at a Hobby Ceramics class by N.R, whoever that may be. (Ignore the two green stickers - I use them to keep track of my collection.)

And here is another example, at first glance a lovely vase carrying the rare mark of Cameron Brown Potteries (Cameron Brown Snr owned Titian and Sherwood). But Cameron Brown and his wife Dorothy were skilled artistic ceramicists. There is no way they would have stuck clumsy lumps of clay on a vase like this person has done.  

At one stage the Brown family had a large Hobby Ceramics business and they used some of their moulds to create blanks for students to decorate.  A genuine Cameron Brown vase would be worth hundreds - this oddity is virtually valueless.

And  below is another from the Brown family.  The vase on the left is genuine Orzel, the one on the right is Hobby - carefully painted and quite pretty, but its odd decoration, light weight and the initials 'MW' scratched into the base make me certain it is the Hobby version of this shape. (I wonder if it is the same MW who painted the Crown Lynn Ceramica Greeenstone vase above...) If you look closely you will see there is a faint 'Aquila' moulded into the base.  Aquila is a brand name which was used by the Brown family at Orzel. 

I have accumulated quite a collection of Hobby pieces - 'for research purposes' and also because I am fascinated by the relationship between the genuine article and the Hobby version - I love to see what amateur decorators do.
Below we have two dolphins, identical in every way except for the glaze – and the weight.  The brown version is typical of Terra Ceramics, a commercial manufacturer in the 1980s.  The green version is lighter in weight and that particular green glaze is typical of Hobby.   Terra Ceramics branched out into Hobby Ceramics in the mid-1980s or thereabouts. 

EDITS - a reader Peter Crowe has reminded me that at one stage Terra made some imitation Blue Mountain ware. I am pretty confident my dolphin below is Hobby because it was slightly softer in shape and very light in weight compared with the brown version - BUT if you find heavier Terra shapes with an imitation Blue Mountain glaze, then it probably is authentic Terra. 

Above, I have featured my Hobby Ceramics ware which is derived from mainstream shapes, because that is where the confusion lies. However there are a lot of Hobby shapes which were supplied direct as well. These adorable little creatures are a good example.

They are both slightly clumsily hand painted and the duck has initials scratched into the base and the dog has the name Olivia painted along one side.

If you frequent opshops you will see more and more of these Hobby pieces - people who were given them in the Hobby Ceramics boom in the 1980s and 1990s are now begining to downsize.  Quite often Hobby pieces were made as gifts. You often see "Love to Nana' (or whatever) and a date painted on the base.  I couldn't resist the quirky message on this little plate, painted by Bonnie's friend Sarah. 

Some Hobby shapes are marked Arnel's.  This is the name of the mould maker and distributor. I believe they are American. There is whole series of Chinese figurines like this one below - again they are often in that slimy-looking green Hobby glaze! If you google 'Arnels pottery images' you will see some of the wide range of shapes they made. 
Here is the base. Again, please ignore my green sticker which is my collection reference number.
One last comment - not all Hobby Ceramics is amateurish. A friend of mine remembers competitions for the best pieces; some entries were of a very high standard.  I like this mug, for example.
And these toucans, though obviously not professional, show artistic merit - far beyond anything I could aspire to!
Ok, I think that is enough for this post. There is plenty more to add - next time I will discuss why not all Hobby pieces are light weight - and why there are a very few Crown Lynn pieces which are professionally decorated though not in Crown Lynn designs! 

Meanwhile, if this brief introduction alerts a few collectors to the pitfalls of buying 'rare' or 'unique' items, then my work is not in vain. Once again I repeat, in the style of Carpay’ does not mean by Carpay.  If there are no other bidders and others are rasing doubt through their questions, then think twice before you bid.   Sometimes sellers leave the questions unanswered – this is another clue that the item may not be as special as the listing suggests. 

EDITS - wonderful Ev Williams has added a whole lot more info to the New Zealand Pottery site.  Click here to see what she has to say! 

You will also find more examples of Hobby Ceramics on the NZ Pottery site here.  (I searched for Hobby on the site.)